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Saturday, July 27, 2019

What Is Database || What Is Data



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What is Data?

Data could be a assortment of a definite little unit of knowledge. It is employed in a range of forms like text, numbers, media, bytes, etc. it is hold on in items of paper or electronic memory, etc.

Word 'Data' is originated from the word 'datum' which means 'single piece of knowledge.' it's plural of the word information.

In computing, Data is information that can be translated into a form for efficient movement and processing. Data is interchangeable.



What is Database?

A database is an organized collection of data, so that it can be easily accessed and managed.
You can organize data into tables, rows, columns, and index it to make it easier to find relevant information.

Database handlers produce a info in such some way that only 1 set of software system program provides access of information to any or all the users.
The main purpose of the database is to operate a large amount of information by storing, retrieving, and managing data.

There area unit several dynamic websites on the globe Wide internet these days that area unit handled through databases. For example, a model that checks the availability of rooms in a hotel. It is an example of a dynamic website that uses a database.

There area unit several databases obtainable like MySQL, Sybase, Oracle, MongoDB, Informix, PostgreSQL, SQL Server, etc.

Modern databases are managed by the database management system (DBMS).
SQL or Structured Query Language is used to operate on the data stored in a database. SQL depends on relative pure mathematics and tuple relative calculus.
A cylindrical structure is employed to show the image of a info.

Database



Evolution of Databases

The database has completed more than 50 years of journey of its evolution from flat-file system to relational and objects relational systems. It has gone through several generations.


The Evolution

File-Based
1968 was the year once File-Based info were introduced. In file-based databases, data was maintained in a flat file. Though files have many advantages, there are several limitations.
One of the major advantages is that the file system has various access methods, e.g., sequential, indexed, and random.


It needs in depth programming in a very third-generation language like COBOL, BASIC.
Hierarchical Data Model 1968-1980 was the era of the Hierarchical Database. Prominent hierarchical database model was IBM's first DBMS. It was called IMS (Information Management System).

In this model, files are related in a parent/child manner.
Below diagram represents Hierarchical Data Model. Small circle represents objects.

Database 2
Like filing system, this model conjointly had some limitations like complicated implementation, lack structural independence, can't easily handle a many-many relationship, etc.
Network data model.

Charles Bachman developed the primary software system at Honeywell known as Integrated information Store (IDS). It was developed in the early 1960s, but it was standardized in 1971 by the CODASYL group (Conference on Data Systems Languages).
In this model, files area unit connected as homeowners and members, like to the common network model.




Network data model identified the following components:

  • Network schema (Database organization)
  • Sub-schema (views of database per user)
  • Data management language (procedural)
  • This model conjointly had some limitations like system complexness and troublesome to style and maintain.


Relational Database

1970 - Present: It is the era of Relational Database and Database Management. In 1970, the relational model was proposed by E.F. Codd.

Relational database model has 2 main terminologies known as instance and schema.
The instance is a table with rows or columns.

Schema specifies the structure like name of the relation, type of each column and name.
This model uses some mathematical concept like set theory and predicate logic.
The first net info application had been created in 1995.

During the age of the on-line database, many more models had introduced like object-oriented model, object-relational model, etc.

Cloud database

Cloud database facilitates you to store, manage, and retrieve their structured, unstructured data via a cloud platform. This data is accessible over the Internet. Cloud databases are also called a database as service (DBaaS) because they are offered as a managed service.
Some best cloud options are:


  • AWS (Amazon Web Services)
  • Snowflake Computing
  • Oracle Database Cloud Services
  • Microsoft SQL server
  • Google cloud spanner
  • Advantages of cloud database


Lower costs

Generally, company supplier doesn't got to invest in databases. It can maintain and support one or more data centers.

Automated
Cloud databases area unit enriched with a range of machine-driven processes like recovery, failover, and auto-scaling.

Increased accessibility
You can access your cloud-based info from any location, anytime. All you need is just an internet connection.

NoSQL Database
A NoSQL database is an approach to design such databases that can accommodate a wide variety of data models. NoSQL stands for "not solely SQL." It is an alternative to traditional relational databases in which data is placed in tables, and data schema is perfectly designed before the database is built.


NoSQL informationbases area unit helpful for an oversized set of distributed data.

Some examples of NoSQL database system with their category are:

  • MongoDB, CouchDB, Cloudant (Document-based)
  • Memcached, Redis, Coherence (key-value store)
  • HBase, Big Table, Accumulo (Tabular)
  • Advantage of NoSQL
  • High Scalability
  • NoSQL will handle an intensive quantity of information as a result of quantifiability. If the info grows, NoSQL info scale it to handle that information in associate economical manner.


High Availability

NoSQL supports auto replication. Auto replication makes it highly available because, in case of any failure, data replicates itself to the previous consistent state.
Disadvantage of NoSQL.


Open source
NoSQL is an open-source database, so there is no reliable standard for NoSQL yet.
Management challenge
Data management in NoSQL is much more complicated than relational databases. It is very challenging to install and even more hectic to manage daily.


GUI is not available
GUI tools for NoSQL info don't seem to be simply accessible within the market.


Backup
Backup may be a nice liability for NoSQL databases. Some databases, like MongoDB, have no powerful approaches for data backup.




The Object-Oriented Databases
The object-oriented knowledgebases contain data within the kind of object and categories. Objects are the real-world entity, and types are the collection of objects. An on-line database may be a combination of relative model options with objects homeward-bound principles. It is another implementation to it of the relative model.

Object-oriented databases hold the rules of object-oriented programming. An object-oriented database management system is a hybrid application.

The object-oriented database model contains the following properties.
Object-oriented programming properties


  • Objects
  • Classes
  • Inheritance
  • Polymorphism
  • Encapsulation
  • Relational database properties
  • Atomicity
  • Consistency
  • Integrity
  • Durability
  • Concurrency
  • Query processing

Graph Databases

A graph database is a No SQL database. It is a graphical representation of data. It contains nodes and edges. A node represents an entity, and each edge represents a relationship between two edges. Every node in a graph database represents a unique identifier.
Graph knowledgebases square measure helpful for looking out the connection between knowledge as a result of they highlight the connection between relevant data.


Database 3
Graph infos square measure terribly helpful once the database contains a posh relationship and dynamic schema.
It is mostly used in supply chain management, identifying the source of IP telephony.
DBMS (Data Base Management System)
Database management System is software which is used to store and retrieve the database. For example, Oracle, MySQL, etc.; these are some popular DBMS tools.
DBMS provides the interface to perform the various operations like creation, deletion, modification, etc.



DBMS allows the user to create their databases as per their requirement.
DBMS accepts the request from the application and provides specific data through the operating system.
DBMS contains the group of programs which acts according to the user instruction.
It provides security to the database.


Advantage of DBMS


  • Controls redundancy
  • It stores all the data in a single database file, so it can control data redundancy.
  • Data sharing
  • An authorized user can share the data among multiple users.
  • Backup
  • It providesBackup and recovery subsystem. This recovery system creates automatic data from system failure and restores data if required.
  • Multiple user interfaces
  • It provides a different type of user interfaces like GUI, application interfaces.
  • Disadvantage of DBMS
  • Size
  • It occupies giant space and huge memory to run expeditiously.
  • Cost
  • DBMS needs a high-speed information processing system and bigger memory to run DBMS software package, therefore it's pricey.
  • Complexity
  • DBMS creates additional complexity and requirements.
  • RDBMS (Relational Database Management System)
  • The word RDBMS is termed as 'Relational Database Management System.' It is represented as a table that contains rows and column.
  • RDBMS is based on the Relational model; it was introduced by E. F. Codd.

A relational database contains the following components:




  • Table
  • Record/ Tuple
  • Field/Column name /Attribute
  • Instance
  • Schema
  • Keys

An RDBMS is a tabular DBMS that maintains the security, integrity, accuracy, and consistency of the data.

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